" " Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality - Co. - An overview of immersive technologies ~ VISION ON PLANET -

Tuesday 4 January 2022

Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality - Co. - An overview of immersive technologies

Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality - Co. - An overview of   immersive technologies

Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality - Co. - An overview of   immersive technologies
Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality - Co. - An overview of   immersive technologies

Over time, a number of terms have been used and defined to classify various forms of virtual technologies. A first taxonomy was made in 1994 by

Milgram and Kishino in the form of the virtuality continuum (Fig. 1). 1 The continuum

represents a scale from the real environment (reality, left) to the virtual environment (virtuality, right)

From left to right along the scale, the proportion of reality decreases continuously and

the proportion of virtuality increases. The further to the right you move in the continuum, the greater it is

corresponding to the proportion of the virtual environment compared to reality. This is synonymous with increasing immersion. Immersion describes the degree of immersion in one

virtual environment. This corresponds to the effect that virtual content or environments are about

different stimuli are perceived as real and the user is part of it

this virtual environment sees. The feeling of presence in the virtual environment is increased

also described with the term presence. Presence is about the entire experience. Depending on the design and implementation of the virtual environment, the content and the characters, the sense of presence can vary in strength. Milgram and Kishino locate the terms augmented reality (AR), augmented virtuality, along the virtual continuum

(AV), Virtual Reality (VR) and Mixed Reality (MR). These terms are presented below according to their Milgram and Kishino definition

Virtual Reality (VR)

VR is on the far right of the continuum. In virtual reality, the visually perceived real environment is completely replaced by a computer-generated virtual world.

There is no visible connection to the real environment. Immersion in Virtual

Reality takes place through the use of special hardware. For a long time, VR was mostly implemented using so-called CAVEs (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment).

The user is surrounded by several large screens on which the virtual

Contents are displayed via stereoscopic projections. With 3D glasses and a corresponding tracking of head movement, the content can be viewed three-dimensionally and in perspective

correctly perceived. Due to technical progress, VR is now mostly implemented over head-mounted displays (HMD). There

each eye is shown an individual, slightly offset image through its own display,

a three-dimensional perception can be generated. By using such a

HMD, the user is completely immersed in the virtual world and has non 

Relation more to the real environment. The immersion in an artificially created world does mentally noticeable on three levels: the spatial perception, the perception of theEnvironment and attention or involvement in the simulated world. Realistic acting and interacting can be carried out in the same way as in real life via various user interfaces Environment

Augmented Reality (AR)

According to the continuum, AR is a combination of real and
virtual world in which the real world predominates. In contrast to VR, AR does not create a new world,
but extends and improves the existing real environment. AR becomes reality
supplemented accordingly with digital content. One also speaks of "augmented reality". Through
the use of mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets, but also of
corresponding AR glasses, additional information is displayed over the real world.
Additional information can include 2D elements (text, image, video) and audio formats or
also be interactive three-dimensional models and animations. This enables a look through
For example, a cell phone camera combines reality and virtuality in real time.
Interaction with the virtual content can also take place in AR through various user interfaces;

Augmented Virtuality (AV)

Augmented virtuality mixes reality and virtuality. However, that predominates
Share of virtuality. AV can be viewed as a form of virtual reality in which parts
the real environment and visualized in the virtual world. So can
For example, the user's hands can be visually integrated in real time
enable intuitive interaction. Depending on the application, individual real
Objects or other people are involved. The term augmented virtuality is not very widespread and is rarely used,

Extended Reality (XR)

The continuum of virtuality is the consensus, especially in science. When Milgram and Kishino worked out the taxonomy, however, it was not foreseeable how the technologies would develop further and what new possibilities would arise. Meanwhile are
therefore further terms have been defined and the meaning of existing terms has been modified.
A relatively new term that is gaining ground in both industry and research
Established is Extended Reality (XR). XR can be used as an umbrella term for all virtual technologies
use. The term itself is not uniformly defined and is still so new that it is currently used
Duden cannot be found. Basically, the X can be viewed as the unknown and through
replace any matching variable.2 Thus, XR includes both AR, AV, VR and also MR after
the definition of Milgram and Kishino.

Assisted Reality (AS)

In addition, the term Assisted Reality (AS) is due to the development of so-called Smart Glasses
like the Google Glass. Google Glass and similar glasses have one small screen that presents the user with an image directly in their field of vision. Since only one eye can see this image, there is no three-dimensional perception. in the unlike AR, the information on the screen is not superimposed on or combined with the physical environment. Assisted Reality is accordingly very low
Degree of immersion. The user, however, gets information visualized in a needs-based and context-specific way and can use both without restrictions hands work. Assisted Reality is therefore, as the name suggests, very suitable for assistance systems of all kinds, 

Spatial Computing (SC)

Another term in the context of immersive technologies is spatial computing (SC). The term was launched in 2003 by Simon Greenwold as part of his master's thesis. 3 It is now often used as a synonym for XR. In contrast to XR, SC is original but less of a term used to classify technologies and more an approach to description of the change in human-machine interaction. Instead of 2D screens and To be bound to classic user interfaces, spatial computing exploits three-dimensional physical space. For previous physical interfaces between humans and computers were essentially developed from the keyboard and the computer mouse. With the however, today's technical possibilities are also more of a natural means of communication between man and machine possible based on the fundamentally intuitive human interactions such as language and gestures are based. This form is also used in spatial computing , preferably used. Conversely, from machine to person, information is released presented in the room and you can work with them. In addition, machines can perceive, store and (virtually) manipulate real spaces. Thanks to the latest Internet of Things and communication solutions, a large number of devices and machines of the most varied types can be networked with one another. In this way, for example, the user interfaces can also be implemented in terms of hardware separately from the actual data processing, such as cloud computing or remote rendering.

Application of Augmented and virtual reality

Support of different target scenarios before going into the next section in detail about the various application scenarios of AR, and VR is reported, it is worth looking at the general goals and purposes associated with its use accompanied. Because here, different areas are already evident in a wide variety of areas;
Philosophies regarding what can be achieved with the use of the respective technology target. A general overview can help to better target certain areas of application distinguish and keep a clear view of what the actual outcome is use of the respective technology should be. Here it is less the technical variety, i.e. pure virtually like in VR or with the inclusion of the environment like in AR, of interest, but which one problem should be solved concretely - or more precisely: Which problem one believed to be
for which a solution is presented. The preoccupation with this topic can be prevent that in the end, as is all too often, a concrete solution is available in AR or VR, but the actual problem may be hidden somewhere else. 
In general, the areas of application collaboration, assistance and learning can be distinguished.
In principle, different philosophies are followed: There is no right one technology or the sensible approach, it always depends on the respective scenario. let's look at learning solutions, for example: In many areas, people today have to to learn something new. All too often we take it for granted that humans do that must learn, practice and then master the topic. Otherwise it's no good. Really? In any case? Take a pilot who flies a passenger plane, and still so many today sitting across from control lights, switches and instruments. Here we wish that this person really has mastered his craft: that he can fly the machine, understands how to handle them down to the smallest details and intuitively from their own abilities can act - especially in emergency situations. Especially rare emergency situations have to
be constantly practiced so that the pilot "can". In addition to expensive flight simulators, VR solutions are of course available here. The situation is similar in the medical field, where this
The doctor's ability is essential and it is not enough if he only provides instructions from a
Machine executes.
On the other hand, there is a different philosophy, according to which a person does certain things
maybe perform, but not necessarily have to master it from the head: This concerns
For example, maintenance that occurs less often, or all situations in which the correct action does not have to be taken reflexively, as otherwise danger to life, limb and machine
threatens. For example, let's look at an extreme example: error codes. Because IT systems in
In the past, maintenance technicians have seldom been user-friendly
Maintenance codes in the head and must have the correct code ready for a fault entry.


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